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69 Goodwood Rd
Wayville, SA, 5034

1300 66 99 40

Reading Doctor® Software is being described by educators as a breakthrough in teaching children to read and spell. Our computer software and tablet apps strengthen skills found through research to be crucial in helping students of all ages to improve their literacy skills. Teaching vital reading skills such as phonological & phonemic awareness, letter-sound knowledge, decoding and sight word recognition is easy with our unique, multi-sensory, patent pending teaching platform. Reading Doctor® Software is designed by leading speech-language pathologist and reading development expert Dr. Bartek Rajkowski, PhD. Regardless of whether you are a teacher, a reading specialist, a person learning English or a parent, we sincerely hope our programs become your favourite teaching tool!


Phonemes, Graphemes and Letters: The Word Burger

What is the difference between phonemes, graphemes and letters? A hamburger analogy can help! Feel free to share this infographic by using the share buttons on the left of this page. You can also download it here. We hope it is useful!

A hamburger analogy can help students learning to read and spell in understanding the difference between phonemes, graphemes and letters.


Phonemes are speech sounds made by the mouth, like the /p/ sound in /spoon/. Understanding that phonemes are the building blocks of spoken words is called phonemic awareness.  Phonemic awareness is the most powerful predictor of future reading ability in young children, and can be assessed by a speech and language pathologist.

Most Common English Phonemes (% of all speech):


GRAPHEMES  are individual letters and groups of letters that represent single phonemes, like the “s” and the “oo” in “spoon”. Understanding how letters are used to encode speech sounds in written language is crucial in learning to decode unfamiliar words. Students who can decode well can teach themselves new words!

Most common English Graphemes:



LETTERS are the visual building blocks of written words. When we say the letters in a word, as in C (see) A (ay) T (tee), we are describing the way the word looks, not the way it sounds. Irregular words contain unusual relationsips between letters and phonemes (e.g. “who”), making them more difficult to read and spell.  

Most Common English Letters (% of dictionary words):


©2015 Bartek Rajkowski, PhD.

Data source: Fry, E. B., & Kress, J. E. (2012). The Reading Teacher’s Book Of Lists. John Wiley & Sons.